Deep Brain Stimulation for Refractory Major Depression
Despite many available treatments, there are patients with major depression who remain treatment refractory and chronically disabled. For these severely ill patients, several neurosurgical procedures are available where brain lesions are made that interrupt white matter tracts linking orbital frontal cortex to the striatum, resulting in significant therapeutic benefit for many patients. In this study, we will test the safety and efficacy of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)--a reversible method used to modulate brain activity--as an alternative to the standard subcaudate tractotomy (SCT). The physiological consequences of this procedure will be mapped longitudinally using positron emission tomography (PET) measures of brain glucose metabolism. Patients will be clinically monitored for 1 year with longitudinal psychiatric, neurological, neurosurgical, neuropsychological and PET imaging examinations to assess treatment efficacy and side effects.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Non-Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Deep Brain Stimulation for Refractory Major Depression|
- Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, 24-item version (HRSD-24)
- Clinical Global Impression (CGI) of Severity/Improvement
- Psychiatric assessments will be performed every two weeks in the clinic. Once final stimulation parameters are established, psychiatric symptoms will be monitored monthly.
|Study Start Date:||June 2002|
|Primary Completion Date:||November 2007 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Study Design Subjects: Ten patients will be enrolled in this pilot study. Eligibility criteria: (i) age 30-70 years old, (ii) diagnosis of refractory unipolar major depression, (iii) recurrent illness with a minimum four major depressive episodes, (iv) current episode duration of no less than twelve months; (v) current episode treatment failure to a minimum of four treatment classes-including serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), other novel agents, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), tricyclics; somatic treatments such as ECT or vagus nerve stimulation (VNS); some form of psychotherapy. Exclusion criteria (i) previous brain surgery (ii) neurological disorder of any type, (iii) significant psychiatric comorbidity as defined by DSM IV diagnostic criteria (such as schizophrenia, panic disorder) (iv) serious medical conditions or contraindication for surgery such as cardiac pacemaker/defibrillator or other implanted devices. Full medical records from a treating psychiatrist will first be reviewed by Dr. Kennedy. Eligible patients will then undergo a full psychiatric, neurological and neuropsychological evaluation (Appendix 1 and 2). Final selection will be made by consensus of the investigative team in collaboration with a senior independent psychiatrist Robert Cooke, MD with expertise in intractable mood disorders. Informed consent will be obtained prior to entering the study.
|University Health Network|
|Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5T 2S8|
|Principal Investigator:||Andres Lozano, MD||University Health Network, Toronto|
|Principal Investigator:||Sidney H Kennedy, MD, FRCPC||Univesity Health Network|